Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is the most common arthritis millions of people suffering from this arthritis worldwide. It exists when the cartilage or cushion between joints breaks down leading to



pain, stiffness, and swelling. This is a type of joint disease that results from the breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone. The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. Initially, symptoms may occur only following exercise, but over time may become constant. Other symptoms may include joint swelling, decreased range of motion, and when the back is affected weakness or numbness of the arms and legs. The most commonly involved joints are those near the ends of the fingers, at the base of the thumb, neck, lower back, knee, and hips. Joints on one side of the body are often more affected than those on the other. Usually, the symptoms come on over years. It can affect work and normal daily activities. Unlike other types of arthritis, only the joints are typically affected.

Cause: Causes include previous joint injuries, gender, obesity, abnormal joint or limb development, and inherited factors. The risk is greater in those who are overweight, have one leg of a different length, and doing occupation that results in high levels of joint stress. Osteoarthritis is believed to be caused by mechanical stress on the joint and low-grade inflammatory processes. It develops as cartilage is lost and the underlying bone becomes affected. As pain may make it very difficult to exercise, muscle loss may occur. Diagnosis is typically based on signs and symptoms, with medical imaging and other tests occasionally used to either support or rule out other problems. In contrast to rheumatoid arthritis, which is primarily an inflammatory condition, in OA, the joints do not typically become hot or red. Some people are no longer able to work. When joint pain is at peak, doctors may suggest joint replacement surgery.


What is Knee?

In a human body, we have two knees which are located in the middle of each leg. The knee is the largest joint in the human body and Its play a hard role in everyday activity likes to run, jump, walk etc. Our knee is covered with a thin lining called the synovial membrane. This membrane release a type of fluid that lubricates the cartilage, reducing friction to nearly zero in a healthy knee.


arthroplasty, Knee transplant

Knee Replacement: If simple medication and other walking supports are not enough to get rid of pain then knee replacement surgery is suggested. this Surgery is conducted for a person suffering from end-stage arthritis of the knee which results in extreme pain and limited movement. Arthritis is a condition that can be controlled through the use of pain-relieving medicines and injections. However, knee replacement becomes the only cure for people when there is no relief even after such measures are taken.  Knee replacement is a type of transplant so it’s also called total knee transplant or Arthroplasty.  In this surgery, the knee is replaced with the artificial joint, which is made of metal and plastic components. The aim of this procedure is to leave a happy life which is without pain and improve the healthy life with daily activities such as walking or climbing stairs

Knee Replacement Surgery can be performed on both knees which are called a Bilateral Knee Replacement or can be performed on one knee which is called a Unilateral Knee Replacement.

Knee replacement surgery is a surgical operation in which the damaged surface of the knee is removed and replaced with metal parts. The metal parts together form a prosthetic implant and fit onto the bone allowing the person to move his or her knee joint free of pain.

Candidate for Total Knee Replacement

If someone feels regular pain in the knee joint and after few minutes pain slowly fades away. The pain can also disturb during rest periods, mostly affect sleep at night. Patient unable to sitting or lying down and unable to climb stairs or slopes reduces gait speed and increasing risk of falls.

The human knee is made up of the lower end of the thighbone which called femur

The upper end of the shinbone called tibia and the kneecap called patella in the medical terms. The ends of these three bones where they touch are protected with articular cartilage, a smooth substance that covers the bones and enables them to move easily.  You can see in this fig also

These are the basic steps of the knee replacement procedures:

: Cutting the bones-shape the cartilage surface at the end of the femur and tibia are removed along with a small amount of damage done.

: placed the metal implants– The removed cartilage and damage bone are replaced with the metal components that recreate the main structure of the joint. These metal parts may be cemented or press fit into the bone for giving particular shape.

: Made of the patella– The damaged surface of the patella (kneecap) is cut and replaced with a plastic button. Some surgeons do not resurface the patella, depending upon the case.

: Insert a spacer– A medical grade plastic spacer is placed between the metal part to create a smooth gliding surface.


The first Knee Replacement surgery was done in 1968. Since then, we have improved in surgical materials and techniques have gently increased its all procedure. Total knee replacement success rate is 100% in all of medicine. In India, more than 200000 knee replacements take place every year.


What is Hip/ Parts of Hips?

Human hips are one of the largest joint in the body. This hip joint is made of ball and socket. The ball is the femoral head which is attached to the femur (thighbone) and the socket is a cup shape bone which is the part of pelvis bone. This hip joint is covered with the cartilage, it’s a soft tissue which covered bones and which help to move easily. There is ligaments which help to connect ball and socket and help to stabilize the joint.

Hip Replacement: Hip Replacement is a surgery conducted for a person suffering from arthritis of the hip which results in extreme pain and limited movement. People suffering from a vascular necrosis, a condition leading to loss of blood to the bone, are likely candidates for hip replacement surgery. Hip replacement surgery may also be needed if a person fractures his hip and a total hip replacement may lead to a better outcome than using fixation with plates and screws.

Hip replacement surgery is a surgical operation in which the damaged surface of the hip joint is removed and replaced often with metal and plastic components. The metal parts together form a prosthetic implant and fit onto the bone allowing for the person to move his or her hip joint free of pain.

In hip replacement surgery, the surgeon decides whether to perform an uncemented total hip replacement, a cemented hip replacement, or a hybrid replacement. New advances in the prosthesis have led to the use of ceramic parts which last longer and are a better option for younger patients. It involves  1 to 3 days stay at the hospital after surgery. You can resume normal routine activities within the first 3 to 6 weeks of their total hip replacement recovery.

Candidate for total hip replacement

There are many reasons for the hip replacement procedure such as-:

: Chronic hip pain while resting at any time.

: Patient unable to walk or bend

: Patient unable to move left and right:

: Patient needs support for working daily activities.

: Medication is not working

The total hip replacement procedure is one of the most successful surgeries in all medicine. It’s firstly performed in 1960. Since then, we have improved in surgical materials and techniques for performing all procedure. Total hip replacement success rate is 100% in all of medicine. In India, more than 150000 knee replacements take place every year.


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries:  This is one of the most common knee injuries to  Athletes who participate in high demand sports like soccer, football, and basketball are more likely to injure their anterior cruciate ligaments.

This injury occurs when the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is either stretched, partially torn, or completely torn. The most common injury is a complete tear

If you have injured your anterior cruciate ligament, you should require surgery to regain full function of your knee. This will depend on several factors, such as the severity of your injury and your activity level

Cause: The anterior cruciate ligament can be injured in several ways:

  • Landing from a jump in wrong way
  • Direct contact or collision, such as a football tackle
  • Changing direction rapidly
  • Stopping quickly
  • Slowing down while running

Several studies have shown that female athletes get a higher incidence of ACL injury than male athletes in certain sports. It has been proposed that this is due to differences in physical conditioning, muscular strength, and neuromuscular control. Other suggested causes include differences in pelvis and lower extremity (leg) alignment, increased looseness in ligaments, and the effects of estrogen on ligament properties.


Treatment: Treatment for an ACL tear will be differ depending upon the patient’s individual needs. For example, the young athlete involved in agility sports will most likely require surgery to safely back to sports. The less active, usually older, individual may be able to return to a quieter lifestyle without surgery.

Nonsurgical Treatment

A torn ACL will not heal without surgery. But nonsurgical treatment may be effective for patients who are elderly or have a very low activity level. If the overall stability of the knee is intact, your doctor may recommend simple, nonsurgical options.

Bracing. Your doctor may recommend a brace to protect your knee from instability while running or playing any sports because it provide extra support. To further protect your knee, you may be given crutches to keep you from putting weight on your leg.

Physical therapy. As the swelling goes down, a careful rehabilitation program is started. You may need this a few days a week to get your knee return in working order. During this procedure, you’ll do exercises to strengthen the muscles around your knee and help you regain a full range of motion. You may be sent home with exercise to do on your own.Specific exercises will restore function to your knee and strengthen the leg muscles that support it.

Surgical Treatment

Rebuilding the ligament: Your doctor may recommend this surgery if your ACL is hurt badly. To surgically repair the ACL and restore knee stability, the ligament must be reconstructed. Your doctor will replace your torn ligament with a tissue graft. This graft acts as a scaffolding for a new ligament to grow on.

Grafts can be obtained from different sources. Often they are taken from the patellar tendon, which runs between the kneecap and the shinbone. Hamstring tendons at the back of the thigh are a common source of grafts. Sometimes a quadriceps tendon, which runs from the kneecap into the thigh, is used. Finally, cadaver graft (allograft) can be used.

There are advantages and disadvantages to all graft sources. You may discuss graft choices with your own orthopaedic surgeon to help determine which is best for you.

Because the regrowth after an injury takes time, it may be six months or more before an athlete can return to competitive sports after surgery.

Procedure: Surgery to rebuild an anterior cruciate ligament is called arthroscopy.in this procedure, an orthopaedic surgeon inserts a pencil-sized tool that contains a lighting system and lens (arthroscope) into the joint through a band-aid size incision to see the level of injury you have. The camera projects an image of the joint onto a TV screen. so that he comes to know what type of treatment you needed Arthroscopic surgery is less invasive. The benefits of less invasive techniques include less pain from surgery, less time spent in the hospital, and quicker recovery times.




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